Contributors to the Red List of Butterflies and Moths

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The Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America was a team effort. The lion’s share of the funding for the project was provided by the CS Fund. This project could not have been undertaken without them. Other funding was provided by members of the Xerces Society and from the Butterfly Conservation Initiative, which provided a small grant to develop profiles for the U.S. federally listed butterflies.

The Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America could not have been completed without the assistance of John Ascher from the American Museum of Natural History. John provided valuable information, advice, and direction for developing the section on native bees. We would also like to thank Karl Magnacca from the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline for his help with bees in Hawaii, Robbin Thorp of University of California at Davis for his assistance with bumble bees, and Laurence Packer of York University for his assistance with several of the bee profiles. We want to thank Jaret Daniels of the McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research for his profile on the Miami Blue. Thanks also to Xerces Society staff members Jeff Adams, Logan Lauvrey, and Ann Wawrukiewicz for help with editing and design. Abigail Hyduke from the Northwest Service Academy and Xerces volunteers Clara Elias, Amy Lambert, and Marie Elwood also provided valuable early research.

Although we did receive assistance from many people, we take full responsibility for any errors in this document.

For a full list of contributors or sources of taxonomic information, please see below.


The following scientists have all written Species Profiles and made other significant contributions to the Red List:

John S. Ascher, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Researcher, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024. Telephone: (212) 496-3447; email:

Jaret Daniels, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Research, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera Research, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainsville, FL 32611. Telephone: (352) 392-5894; email:

Karl Magnacca, Ph.D., U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline, PIERC Kilauea Field Station, P.O. Box 52, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718. Email:

Laurence Packer, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3. Telephone: (416) 736-2100 x22663; email:

Robbin W. Thorp, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Entomology, Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Telephone: (530) 752-0482; email:

We also received advice and information from many other scientists, including:

  • Peter Kevan, University of Guelph;
  • Ron McGinley, Illinois Natural History Survey;
  • Paul Opler, Colorado State University;
  • John Pascarella, Valdosta State University; and
  • Cory Sheffield, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre.


In preparing the Species Profiles, the following were the principal sources for species names and authors:

Integrated Taxonomic Information System.

International Lepidoptera Survey:

Jepson Flora Project (California).

Michener, C. D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

NABA. 2001. Checklist and English Names of North American Butterflies. 2nd edition. Morristown, NJ: North American Butterfly Association.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS database, Version 3.5.