‘Weird and Wonderful’ Plants for Pollinators: Pale Indian Plantain

In celebration of National Wildflower Week, we’re highlighting some of our favorite “weird and wonderful” plants for pollinators. You can find the best plants for pollinators anytime at xerces.org/plant-lists.

Pale Indian Plantain

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (Syn. Cacalia atriplicifolia)

Not to be confused with the banana-like vegetable known from Cuban cuisine, nor the common broadleaf “weed” found in lawns, pale indian plantain is a tall, upright plant topped with a torch of unusual tubular white flower clusters at its peak.

In its first year from seed, pale indian plantain forms a tidy rosette of unusual looking, blue-green leaves that look as though they are made of plastic. In subsequent years the plant leaps up to between three and as much as nine feet in height!  The leaves are held somewhat close to the red-colored sturdy stems which keep the interesting flowers aloft. It’s a worthy plant to include in a garden, providing verticality and structure behind other perennials – however, gardeners may wish to clip the stalks after flowering to prevent the plant from spreading by seed. In a wildflower meadow, the plant mixes well with taller wildflowers and grasses, such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and ironweed (Vernonia spp.)

Even if you have to grab a ladder to do so, it’s worth having a look at the flowers, as they are quite different in shape and arrangement than many others and attract an interesting mix of mostly wasps, small bees, flies, and moths.


Indian plantain stands out in a crowd. In a wildflower meadow, it mixes well with taller plants and grasses such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and ironweed (Vernonia spp.) Photos: Prairie Moon Nursery


Sand wasps (Bicyrtes), great black wasps (Spex pensylvanicus) great golden digger wasps (Sphex ichneumoneus) and thread-waisted wasps (Ammophila spp.) are just a few of the beneficial wasps that visit the plant and are its primary pollinators. In her book Attracting Native Pollinators, Heather Holm explains that the flowers are uniquely designed to attract wasps, acting like a floral drinking fountain:

“Nectar is secreted at the base of the style and rises up the corolla allowing access to short-tongued wasps. During hot summer days, wasps have shown a preference for more dilute nectar sources. Pale indian plantain’s white flowers, with nectar replenished from the base of the corolla, may help keep the nectar cool and more dilute.

Heather also documents the Clematis clearwing moth (Alcathoe caudata) as a visitor of the plant, especially when growing near the moth’s host plant of virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana).


Best for: Ornamental interest, supporting predatory wasps to battle “bad” bugs.

Native Range: Native to many states east of the Mississippi.


By Justin Wheeler, Web Manager / Communications Administrator