A Quick Guide to Monarch Habitat on Farms in California’s Central ValleyBy Angela Laws, Sarina Jepsen, Jessa Kay Cruz, Aimee Code, Stephanie McKnight, Emma Pelton, Samantha Marcum, and Scott Hoffman Black. The western monarch population is now less than 1% of its size in the 1980s, and urgent action is needed to stabilize their numbers. As California’s Central Valley is an important part of their breeding range, this guide provides information for farmers interested in adding monarch habitat to their farms. Read more.
Backyard PondsGuidelines for Creating and Managing Habitat for Dragonflies and Damselflies By Celeste Mazzacano, Dennis Paulson, and John Abbott These guidelines provide information for homeowners and other landowners about the creation, management, and maintenance of backyard ponds to attract native wildlife, with an emphasis on attracting dragonflies and damselflies. Read more.
Best Management Practices for Pollinators on Western RangelandsBy Stephanie McKnight, Candace Fallon, Emma Pelton, Rich Hatfield, Aimée Code, Jennifer Hopwood, Sarina Jepsen, and Scott Hoffman Black. To help land managers incorporate pollinator-friendly practices into rangeland management, the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation developed Best Management Practices for Pollinators on Western Rangelands. These guidelines were developed for federally managed rangelands that span the eleven western United States: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Read more.
Beyond the Birds and the BeesEffects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Agriculturally Important Beneficial Insects
By Jennifer Hopwood, Scott Hoffman Black, Mace Vaughan, and Eric Mäder.
This report moves the spotlight from the risks neonicotinoids pose to bees to the impacts of neonicotinoids to invertebrates such as earthworms or lady beetles. Read more.
Conservation Status and Ecology of the Monarch Butterfly in the United StatesBy Sarina Jepsen, Dale F. Schweitzer, Bruce Young, Nicole Sears, Margaret Ormes, and Scott Hoffman Black.
This report, prepared for the U.S. Forest Service by the Xerces Society and NatureServe, aims to inform government agencies charged with biodiversity protection, as well as conservation organizations and the public in general about the threats to and current conservation status of this much-loved, iconic insect. Read more.
Conserving Bumble BeesGuidelines for Creating and Managing Habitat for America’s Declining Pollinators
By Rich Hatfield, Sarina Jepsen, Eric Mader, Scott Hoffman Black, and Matthew Shepherd
Highlights the important role that bumble bees play in plant pollination, details the threats they face, and provides information on how land managers can create, restore, and enhance high quality habitat. Also includes an identification guide to some common and imperiled species and lists of important bumble bee plants. Read more..
Conserving the Gems of Our WatersBest Management Practices for Protecting Native Western Freshwater Mussels During Aquatic and Riparian Restoration, Construction, and Land Management Projects and Activities. By Emilie Blevins, Laura McMullen, Sarina Jepsen, Michele Blackburn, Aimée Code, and Scott Hoffman Black. This publication provides guidance and resources for a range of topics, from incorporating freshwater mussels into project planning, surveying for mussels, implementing best management practices, and performing salvages and relocations at restoration sites.
Ecologically Sound Mosquito Management in WetlandsBy Celeste Mazzacano and Scott Hoffman Black. This report reviews current mosquito control practices in the United States, describes risks and benefits associated with different types of mosquito control—including direct and indirect impacts of chemical and biological controls on nontarget organisms—and provides recommendations on how to develop effective practices to manage mosquito populations while reducing pesticide use and conserving wetlands.
Establishing Pollinator Meadows From SeedBy Eric Lee-Mäder, Brianna Borders, and Ashley Minnerath
Establishing wildflower habitat for pollinators is the single most effective course of action to conserve pollinators that can be taken by anyone at any scale. These guidelines provide step-by-step instructions for establishing pollinator meadows from seed in areas that range in size from a small backyard garden up to areas around an acre. Read more.
Farming for BeesGuidelines for Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms
By Mace Vaughan, Jennifer Hopwood, Eric Lee-Mäder, Matthew Shepherd, Claire Kremen, Anne Stine, and Scott Hoffman Black
This booklet outlines ways to protect and enhance habitat for native crop pollinators in the farm landscape. It includes advice on simple changes that can be made in farm management for the benefit of native bees, as well as how to create important habitat features. Read more.
Habitat Planning for Beneficial InsectsGuidelines for Conservation Biological Control. By Jennifer Hopwood, Eric Lee-Mäder, Lora Morandin, Mace Vaughan, Claire Kremen, Jessa Kay Cruz, Jim Eckberg, Sarah Foltz-Jordan, Kelly Gill, Thelma Heidel-Baker, and Sara Morris. Beneficial insects are integral to healthy agricultural ecosystems and to our environment. This publication outlines the ecology of many native beneficial insect groups and highlights recommended strategies for conservation biological control—the practice of providing habitat for insects that attack crop pests. Read more.
How Neonicotinoids Can Kill BeesThe science behind the role these insecticides play in harming bees.
By Jennifer Hopwood, Aimee Code, Mace Vaughan, David Biddinger, Matthew Shepherd, Scott Hoffman Black, Eric Mader, and Celeste Mazzacano.
This report details potential negative impacts of neonicotinoids insecticides to honey bees and other important pollinators. It also makes recommendations on how we can better protect bees. Read more.
How to Help Your Community Create an Effective Mosquito Management PlanA Xerces Society Guide By Scott Hoffman Black, Aimee Code, and Celeste Mazzacano This guide will help you learn more about mosquitoes and the diverse wetland communities in which they play an important part, and give you the resources and information you need to work for the adoption of safe, effective methods of mosquito management in the places where you live and play.
Insects and Roadless ForestsA Scientific Review of Causes, Consequences, and Management Alternatives
By S.H. Black, D. Kulakowski, B.R. Noon, D. DellaSala
A new report suggests that government efforts to stem the infestation of insects in forests across the American West may be ineffective and are unlikely to mitigate future infestation or decrease wildfire risk. Read more.
Logging to Control Insects: The Science and Myths Behind Managing Forest Insect “Pests”By Scott Hoffman Black
This is a synthesis of independently reviewed research. It presents a comprehensive analysis of research on the control of bark beetles and defoliators, such as spruce budworm and tussock moths. Read more.
Making More RoomA Companion to Making Room for Native Pollinators: Oregon’s Butterflies, Local Plants, and Extra Resources
In an increasingly urbanized nation, golf courses give a welcome break from the hard surfaces of towns and cities. Golf courses are of growing importance in many communities Read more.
Making Room for Native PollinatorsMaking Room for Native Pollinators. How to Create Habitat for Pollinator Insects on Golf Courses
On golf courses across the country wildflowers bloom, birds nest, mammals feed, lizards bask, bats roost, and butterflies sip nectar. Given this diversity of wildlife, Read more
Managing for Monarchs in the WestManaging for Monarchs in the West provides a summary of the known effects of frequently used land management practices—grazing, mowing, prescribed fire, and pesticides—on monarchs and their breeding and migratory habitat, followed by best management practices (BMPs) for how to integrate monarch conservation in management decisions. Guidance on timing management activities gives managers the confidence of when they can mow, burn, or graze land without disrupting breeding monarchs. Invasive non-native and noxious plant management, recreation, and climate change impacts are also addressed.
Milkweeds and Monarchs in the Western U.S.By Candace Fallon, Brianna Borders, Eric Lee-Mäder, and Scott Hoffman Black
This guide is an introduction to milkweeds and monarchs in the western U.S., from basic biology to the importance of these species in the landscape and the threats they currently face. Milkweeds and Monarchs in the Western U.S. outlines how land managers can join existing efforts to help western monarchs by identifying and reporting milkweed stands and monarch breeding occurrences on their lands. Read more.
Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner’s GuidePlant Ecology, Seed Production Methods, and Habitat Restoration Opportunities
By Brianna Borders and Eric Lee-Mader This Xerces Society guide shows how to bring back our milkweeds and restore habitat for monarch butterflies. Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide is a first-of-its kind manual on large-scale milkweed seed production, nursery propagation, and field restoration of the plants. Read more.
Monarch Habitat HandbookA California Landowner’s Guide to Managing Monarch Butterfly Overwintering Habitat
By Lincoln Brower, Mia Monroe, and Katrin Snow
Produced as part of the Xerces Society’s Monarch Project, this handbook is a guide for California landowners who wish to practice wise stewardship over their Monarch butterfly overwintering habitat, preserving it for future generations to enjoy. 16 pages, 6″ x 8-1/2″, full-color photographs. Read more.
Mussel-Friendly RestorationA Guide to the Essential Steps for Protecting Freshwater Mussels in Aquatic and Riparian Restoration, Construction, and Land Management Projects and Activities. By Emilie Blevins, Laura McMullen, Sarina Jepsen, Michele Blackburn, Aimée Code, and Scott Hoffman Black. Mussel-Friendly Restoration is a companion guide to Conserving the Gems of Our Waters, intended to answer common questions related to best management practices and serve as useful tool for restoration practitioners, construction project managers, and other professionals while working onsite. Read more.
Native Freshwater Mussels in the Pacific NorthwestMost people are unaware of the presence and importance of mussels in local waters, and staff of natural resource organizations often lack the resources to survey mussels, salvage them from restoration sites, or develop management plans. This is a guide to help those organizations in their restoration and conservation work. Read more.
Native Thistles: A Conservation Practitioner’s GuidePlant Ecology, Seed Production Methods, and Habitat Restoration Opportunities Our new guide aims to provide the information necessary to return native thistles to their rightful place in the landscape. In it you’ll find one of the most comprehensive discussions of the value of native thistles for pollinators and other wildlife, as well as a detailed account of the conservation status of native thistles. Read more.
Oil in Our OceansA Review of the Impacts of Oil Spills on Marine Invertebrates
By Michele Blackburn, Celeste Mazzacano, Candace Fallon, and Scott Hoffman Black.
Exploring the impacts of oil spills on invertebrates of all types, from corals and zooplankton to crabs and oysters, the report clearly establishes that an oil spill has immediate impacts on invertebrates, and continues affecting wildlife for years, even decades, after the cleanup crews have left. Read more
Organic PesticidesMinimizing Risks to Pollinators and Beneficial Insects.This edition (2019) was written by Emily May, Aimée Code, Mace Vaughan, and Sara Morris. It is based on previous editions written by Eric Lee-Mäder (2008) and Nancy Lee Adamson (2012). This guide provides a brief overview of how to select and apply pesticides for organic farm operations while minimizing pollinator mortality. Many of the practices outlined here for protecting pollinators also can help to protect beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps and flies; predaceous wasps, flies, and beetles; ambush and assassin bugs; lacewings; and others. The presence of these insects can further reduce pest pressure and the need for chemical treatments. Read more.
Organic Site Preparation for Wildflower EstablishmentSite preparation is one of the most important and often inadequately addressed components for successfully installing pollinator habitat. These guidelines provide step-by-step instructions for using organic site preparation methods on small and large sites. Learn more.
Pollinator Conservation in Minnesota and WisconsinA Regional Stakeholders Report
By The Xerces Society
This report summarizes the findings of an August 2010 meeting of regional stakeholders (farm organizations, universities, nonprofit conservation organizations, and state and federal agencies) held at the University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire. It identifies the primary threats to the region’s pollinators and offer conservation recommendations. Read more.
Pollinator Management for Organic Seed ProducersBy Eric Mader and Jennifer Hopwood
Review provided by Organic Seed Alliance
More than 80% of the world’s flowering plants depend upon insect pollinators to produce seed; this includes more than two thirds of all agricultural plants. Because of this, bees and other pollinators are an obvious concern for seed producers. Read more
Pollinator-Friendly ParksHow to Enhance Parks, Gardens, and other Greenspaces for Native Pollinator Insects
By Matthew Shepherd, Mace Vaughan, and Scott Hoffman Black
In an increasingly urbanized nation, parks and greenspaces make a significant contribution to the vitality of local communities, including by offering a healthy environment. Read more.
Pollinators and RoadsidesManaging Roadsides for Bees and Butterflies
By Jennifer Hopwood
These guidelines provide a concise overview of the conservation potential of roadside habitat and offer practical information on how to maximize the value of these areas for pollinators while meeting basic traffic safety requirements. Read more.
Pollinators in Natural AreasA Primer on Habitat Management
By Scott Hoffman Black, Nathan Hodges, Mace Vaughan and Matthew Shepherd
This primer provides a summary of how land and wildlife managers can account for the habitat needs of pollinators. This 8-page booklet provides a series of recommendations for land managers on how tools such as fire, grazing, mowing, herbicides, and insecticides can be adjusted to benefit pollinators. Read more.
Preventing Negative Impacts of Pesticides on PollinatorsBy Mace Vaughan, Giulio Ferruzzi, Joseph Bagdon, Eric Hesketh, and David Biddinger
This USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) manual provides NRCS state offices and IPM professionals with guidance on conservation strategies that can reduce the risk of pesticides to bees in farm landscapes. Read more.
Protecting Bees from Neonicotinoids in Your GardenThis brochure explains what neonicotinoid pesticides are, why they are a risk to bees, gives examples of neonicotinoid garden products, and gives some simple tips for protecting bees from these insecticides.
Protecting California’s Butterfly GrovesThe guidelines provide an overview of the biology and conservation of western monarchs; step-by-step guidance for developing a site-specific management plan, and overall guidance on topics including tree management, shrub and forb management, and visitor and public access issues. The document also includes a list of monarch-attractive native nectar plants suitable for coastal areas.
Smarter Pest ManagementProtecting Pollinators at Home. Written by Aimée Code and Sarah Hoyle. Making your home pollinator-friendly is easy and rewarding. Most of North America’s native bee species only forage over a distance of a few hundred yards, so with a little planning, your yard can provide a safe space for bees and other pollinators to thrive. All you need to give them are flowering plants throughout the growing season, undisturbed places to nest, and protection from pesticides. This guide will help you with the last item, managing yard pests in a pollinator-friendly way. Read more.
Streamlined Bee Monitoring ProtocolDeveloped the University of California, Davis, Rutgers University, Michigan State University, and The Xerces Society, this guide provides instructions for assessing pollinator habitat quality and diversity by monitoring native bees. It was developed for conservationists, farmers, land managers, and restoration professionals to document how native bee communities change through time in pollinator habitats. It includes an introduction to bee identification, a detailed monitoring protocol, and data sheets for different habitat types. Read more.
Using Farm Bill Programs for Pollinator ConservationBy Mace Vaughan and Mark Skinner
These guidelines provide a concise summary of how Farm Bill conservation programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentive Program or the Conservation Reserve Program, can be used to restore or enhance habitat for pollinators on working farms and private lands. Read more.
Yolo Natural Heritage Program (NCP/NCCP) Pollinator Conservation StrategyBy Scott Hoffman Black, Matthew Shepherd, Mace Vaughan, Caitlin LaBar, and Nathan Hodges
This first-of-its-kind conservation strategy summarizes the threats facing native bees and identifies conservation measures that can be taken within the diverse landscapes of Yolo County in the Central Valley of California. Written by Xerces Society scientists for the Yolo Natural Heritage Program. Read more.